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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

THE OPEN-HEARTH FURNACE.                           153
having been determined. The average temperature of the gas and air was 280 C., so that there was a loss of 23 per cent, for 400 0., or 6 per cent, for each 100 C., so that an increase in the cubical content of the regenerative chambers, sufficient to reduce the temperature of the waste gases 100 C., will effect a saving of 6 per cent,, and after allowing for the gain in heat from the metalloids and the loss of .heat in the producer, this will be a saving of from 25 to 45 pounds of coal per ton, depending on the fuel economy of the furnace. The loss from radiation and conduction is twice the loss in the escaping gases, but this item includes all the experimental errors.
HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF FUELS.
Per molecular weight.         Per kilo.        Perc. m.
C to CO..........................    29,400                2,450
C to COs.........................    97,600                8,133
CO to COa........................    68,200                2,436                 3,069
H to vapor HaO..................    58,080              29,040                2,614
CBU to C02 and H20 gas........... 191,560              11,970                8,620
C2H* to COa and H^O gas.......... 319,260              11,400              14,367
Si to SiOa........................ 180,000                6,430
Fe to FeO........................    65,700                1,173
Fe to FeA....................... 195,600                1,746
Physical constants used in the calculations:
Weight of 1 c. m. H gas (at 0 and 760 m. m.) 0.09 kg.
Weight of 1 c. m. any other gas=0.09 kg.xl/2 its molecular weight.
Weight of C in 1 c. m. of CO, C02,CHi=0.5.4 kg.
Mean specific heat of 1 c. m. from 0 to t C.
CO, H, N or 0     - 0.306+0.000027 t
COa                0'.374+0.000271
HaO                 0.342+0.000151
CH*                0.418+0.000241
C2EU                0.424+0.000521
TABLE VIII-A. Distribution of Heat in the Producer.
Coal per ton of steel produced, pounds....................         440
Coal per ton of steel produced, kilogrammes.............         200
Carbon in coal, per cent..................................         .,!!M!f
Carbon in 200 kg. coal, .kg...............................            Ho
Ash in coal, per cent....................................            J-12
Carbon in producer ash, per cent, of ash.................           21.07
Carbon in producer ash, per cent, of coal................            1.90
Heat value of carbon in ash per 200 kg. coal, calories..;.     30,700 Producer gas: composition by volume, per cent, (dry gas)
C02, 5.7; CO, 22.0; CH*. 2.6; CHi, 0.6; H, 10.5; 0, 0.4;
N, 58.2.